Glossary of Roofing Terms

Algae: Roof discoloration that is caused by algae. Also, called fungus growth.

Architectural Shingles: Architectural shingles are known as three dimensional shingles or high definition shinlges. Architectural shingles brings color contrast to your home with great curb appeal to your home. Architectural shingles are considered high end asphalt shingles.

Architectural Shingles – Owens Corning: TruDefinition® Duration® Shingles are specially formulated to provide greater contrast and dimension to any roof. Through the use of multiple granule colors and shadowing, TruDefinition® Duration® Shingles offer a truly unique and dramatic effect. The exclusive combination of color and depth is what makes TruDefinition® Duration® Shingles like no other.

Angled Fasteners: Roofing nails and staples driven into decks at angles not parallel to the deck.

Apron Flashing: Flashing located at the top of a sloped roof and a vertical wall, chimney, or steeper-sloped roof.

ASTM: American Society for Testing & Material

Asphalt Shingles: Asphalt shingles are usually the least expensive option for a roofing material. The material is available in different styles and durability levels. It wears quicker than other roofing material products and is susceptible to wind and ice.

Asphalt Plastic Roofing Cement: An asphalt-based cement used to bond roofing materials.


Back Surfacing: Mineral matter applied to the back side of shingles to keep them from sticking.

Blistering: Blistering is defined as bubbles or pimples in roofing materials.

Blow-Offs: Blow-Offs typically occur in a wind storm that forces high winds to remove your shingles off your roof deck.

Balanced System: A ventilation system where 50% of the required ventilating area is provided by vents located in the upper portion of the roof with the balance provided by undereave or soffit vents.

Base Flashing: That portion of the flashing attached to or resting on the deck to direct the flow of water onto the roof covering.

Bridging: A method of reroofing with metric-sized shingles.

Bundle: A package of shingles. There are 3, 4 or 5 bundles per square.

Buckling: Shingles and underlayment can be affected by a wrinkle or ripple in the shingles.

Butt Edge: The lower edge of the shingles tabs.


Closed Cut Valley: A method of valley treatment in which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the valley while shingles from the other side are trimmed two inches from the valley centerline. The valley flashing is not exposed.

Counter Flashing: That portion of the flashing attached to a vertical surface to prevent water from migrating behind the base flashing.

Crickets: A peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.

Cavity Wall: A wall formed of two thicknesses of masonry with a space between them

Caulk: To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to prevent leaks.

CertainTeed Shingle Settlement: The shingles that are the subject of this lawsuit are organic asphalt shingles manufactured from July 1, 1987 through 2005 under the brand namesHallmark Shangle, Independence Shangle, Horizon Shangle, Custom Sealdon, Custom Sealdon 30, Sealdon 20, Sealdon 25, Hearthstead, Solid Slab, Master Slab, Custom Saf-T-Lok, Saf-T-Lok, and Custom Lok 25.

Channel Flashing: Flashing used at roof-to-wall junctures and other roof-to-vertical plane intersections where an integral gutter is needed to handle runoff.

Class ” A”: The highest fire-resistance rating for roofing as per ASTM E-108. Indicates roofing is able to withstand severe exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.

Class “B”: Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing materials are able to withstand moderate exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.

Class “C”: Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing materials are able to withstand light exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.

Closed Cut Valley: A method of valley treatment in which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the valley while shingles from the other side are trimmed two inches from the valley centerline. The valley flashing is not exposed.

Coating : A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded.

Collar: Pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening. Also called a vent sleeve.

Cupping: Visually it forms a cup or clurled up look. When shinlges are imporperly installed over exisiting roofing or over-exposed. This can also be a defect error on the shingle manufacturing.

Concealed Nail Method: Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the underlying course of roofing and covered by a cemented, overlapping course. Nails are not exposed to the weather.

Condensation: The change of water from vapor to liquid when warm, moisture-laden air comes in contact with a cold surface.

Counter Flashing: That portion of the flashing attached to a vertical surface to prevent water from migrating behind the base flashing.

Course: A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.

Coverage: Amount of weather protection provided by the roofing material. Depends on number of layers of material between the exposed surface of the roofing and the deck; i.e., single coverage, double coverage, etc.

Cricket: A peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.

Cutout: The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs.


Damper: An adjustable plate for controlling draft.

Deck: The surface installed over the supporting framing members to which the roofing is applied

Deck Armor: Roof deck protection from wind-driven rain from infiltrating under your shingles and causing damage to your roof structure.

Dormer: A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof.

Double Coverage: Application of asphalt roofing such that the lapped portion is at least two inches wider than the exposed portion, resulting in two layers of roofing material over the deck.

Drain: To have liquid flow away from an area.

Down Spout: A pipe for draining water from roof gutters. Also called a leader.

Dutch Lap Method: Application of giant individual shingles with the long dimension parallel to the eaves. Shingles are applied to overlap adjacent shingles in each course as well as the course below.

Drip Edge: A non-corrosive, non-staining material used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip clear of underlying construction.


Eaves Flashing: Additional layer of roofing material applied at the eaves to help prevent damage from water back-up.

Edging Strips: Boards nailed along eaves and rakes after cutting back existing wood shingles to provide secure edges for reroofing with asphalt shingles.

Exposed Nail Method: Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the cemented, overlapping course of roofing. Nails are exposed to the weather.

Exposed I Grade Plywood: Type of plywood approved by the American Plywood Association for exterior use.

Eaves: The horizontal, lower edge of a sloped roof.

End Laps: When installing rolled products in roofing, the area where a roll ends on a roof, and is overlapped by the next section of rolled material.

Exposure: If an area is left open to the elements it is esposed.


Fasteners: Securing roofing to the deck by using nails or staples.

Fiberglass Blown-In Insulation: Tiny air pockets trapped in the insulation resist the passage of heat flow.

Fiberglass Mat: An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from glass fibers.

Felt: Fibrous material saturated with asphalt and used as an underlayment or sheathing paper.

Flange: Metal pan extending up or down a roof slope around flashing pieces.

Flame Retardant: Resistance to catching on fire.

Flashing: Pieces of metal or roll roofing used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers and valleys. Galvanized metal flashing should be minimum 26-gauge.

Fascia: Is an architectural term for a frieze or band running horizontally and situated vertically under a roof edge. It consists of wooden boards or sheet metal.

Feathering Strips: Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butts of old wood shingles to create a level surface when reroofing over existing wood shingle roofs. Also called horsefeathers.


Gutter: The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.

Grambrel: Roof A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains a gable at each end.

Gable: The upper portion of a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof.

Galvanize Metal: Steel with a thin coating of zinc oxide.

Granules: Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.


Hand Sanding: The method to assure sealing of shingles on very steep slopes, in high wind areas, and when installing in cold weather.

Head Lap: Shortest distance from the butt edge of an overlapping shingle to the upper edge of a shingle in the second course below. The triple coverage portion of the top lap of strip shingles.

Hex Shingles: Shingles that have the appearance of a hexagon after installation.

High Nailing: When shingles are nailed or fastened above the manufacturer’s specified nail location.

Hip Legs: The down-slope ridges on hip roofs.

Hip Roof: A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. Contains no gables.

Hip Shingles: Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

Humidity: Is the amount of water vapor in the air. A wet house can be detrimental to your home and health. Make sure your home is properly ventalated.

HVAC: Heating, Ventilation, & Air Conditioning


Ice Dams: Condition formed at the lower roof edge by the thawing and re-freezing of melted snow on the overhang. Can force water up and under shingles, causing leaks.

Impact Resistance: An impact resistant shingle that can withstand impact from flying objects at a much greater extent than a common asphalt shingle. The impact resistant rating system ranks shingles’ resistance to impact into 4 levels – 1 through 4, with Class 4 as the highest rating level to impact resistance.

Incline: A line that defines its steepness or grade.

Insulation: Insulation is added to a home for comfort, sound, and energy efficiency.

Intake Ventilation: The part of a ventilation system used to draw fresh air in. Usually vents installed in the soffit or along the eaves of a building.

Interlocking Shingles: Individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance.

ITEL: ITEL tests carpet, padding and hard surface flooring such as wood, vinyl, laminate, ceramic, porcelain and stone. The report shows detailed specs of the sample, and benchmark pricing for comparable replacement products.




Laminated Shingles: Strip shingles containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. Also called three-dimensional shingles.

Laps: To cover the surface of one shingle or roll with another.

Lap Cement: An asphalt-based cement used to adhere overlapping plies of roll roofing.

Low Slop Application: Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between two and four inches per foot.

Louver: A slanted opening for ventilation.


Mansard: A roof design with a nearly vertical roof plane that ties into a roof plane of less slope at its peak.

Mats: The general term for the base material of shingles and certain rolled products.

Metal Roofing: Metal roofing is the most durable roofing product avilable. We offer different styles, colors, as well as shaped to look like shingles, Spanish tile, shake, or slate.

Mortar: Mixture of sand, mortar, limestone and water used in bonding a chimney’s bricks together.


Natural Ventilation: A ventilation system utilizing ventilators installed in openings in the attic and properly positioned to take advantage of natural air flow to draw hot summer or moist winter air out and replace it with fresh outside air.

Nesting: A method of reroofing with new asphalt shingles over old shingles in which the top edge of the new shingle is butted against the bottom edge of the existing shingle tab.

Normal Slope Application: Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 4 inches and 21 inches per foot.

Nail Guide Line – Sure Nail Owens Corning: Breakthrough Design. Featuring a tough, woven engineered reinforcing fabric to deliver consistent fastening during installation.

Nail-Pop: When a nail is not fully driven, it sits up off the roof deck.


Open Valley: Method of valley construction in which shingles on both sides of the valley are trimmed along a chalk line snapped on each side of the valley. Shingles do not extend across the valley. Valley flashing is exposed.

Organic Shingles: ‘Organic’ is the current word used to describe traditional asphalt shingles, which differentiates them from an up-and-coming alternative called fibreglass shingles.

Overexposed: Installing shingle courses higher than their intended

Overhang: That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.


Pallets: Wooden platforms used for storing and shipping bundles of shingles.

Pitch: The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet.

Ply: The number of layers of roofing: i.e. one-ply, two-ply.



Racking: Roofing application method in which shingle courses are applied vertically up the roof rather than across and up. Not a recommended procedure.

Rafter: The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate.

Release Tape: A plastic or paper strip that is applied to the back of self-sealing shingles. This strip prevents the shingles from sticking together in the bundles, and need not be removed for application.

Ridge Shingles: Shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.

Ridgid Vent: Hard plastic ridge vent material.

Rise: The vertical distance from the eaves line to the ridge.

Roof Louvers: Rooftop rectangular shaped roof vents. Also called box vents, mushroom vents, airhawks, soldier vents.

Roof Plane: A roofing area defined by having four separate edges. One side of a gable, hip or mansard roof.

Run: The horizontal distance from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One half the span.


Sawteeth: The exposed section of double thickness on Timberline® Series shingles. Shaped to imitate wood shake look on the roof.

Self-Sealant Cement: A thermal-sealing tab cement built into the shingle to firmly cement the shingles together automatically after they have been applied properly and exposed to warm sun temperatures. In warm seasons, the seal will be complete in a matter of days. In colder seasons, sealing time depends on the temperature and amount of direct sunlight hitting the shingles. Hand sealing with plastic cement should be done to ensure sealing in winter.

Sheathing: Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.

Shed Roof: A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.

Shingle: Shingles are the first line of defense against the elements.

Side Laps: The area on rolled material where one roll overlaps the rolled material beneath it. Also called selvage edge on rolled roofing.

Side Walls: Where a vertical roof plane meets a vertical wall. The sides of dormers etc.

Single Coverage: Asphalt roofing that provides one layer of roofing material over the deck.

Skylight: A smart choice for adding natural light into your home.

Slope: The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.

Soffit: The finished underside of the eaves.

Soffit Ventilation: Intake ventilation installed under the eaves, or at the roof edge.

Soil Stack: A vent pipe that penetrates the roof.

Span: The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves.

Starter Strip: The first step in the proper installation of shingles.

Steep Slop Roofing: Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21 inches per foot.

Step Flashing: Flashing application method used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane.

Strip Shingles: Asphalt shingles that are approximately three times as long as they are wide.

Synthetic Roofing: We offer DaVinci synthetic prodcuts suh as slate, shake or tile roof.

Synthetic Underlayment – Rhino Roof: RhinoRoof is InterWrap’s revolutionary new synthetic roofing underlayment and the first synthetic competitively priced with 15 lb felt! Designed specifically for use under asphalt shingle roofing. RhinoRoof is up to 25 x times stronger than 15 lb roofing felt, has a fiber grip walking surface, can also be chalked just like felt and is backed by a 10 year limited warranty


Tab: The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.

Tear-Off: Removal of existing roofing materials down to the roof deck.

Telegraphing: When shingles reflect the uneven surface beneath them. Shingles installed over buckled shingles may show some buckles.

Three-Tab Shingles: ”The most popular type of asphalt shingle usually 12″” x 36″” in size with three tabs.”

Top Lap: That portion of the roofing covered by the succeeding course after installation.

Transition: When a roof plane ties into another roof plane that has a different pitch or slope.

Triple Layer Protection®: A unique “triple layer” of reinforcement occurs when the fabric overlays the common bond of the shingle laminate layers that offers excellent fastener holding power. Superior Adhesion. Our enhanced Tru-Bond®** sealant grips tightly to the engineered fabric nailing strip on the shingle below. Excellent Adhesive Power. Specially formulated, wide adhesive bands help keep shingle layers laminated together. Exceptional Wind Resistance. The industry’s first asphalt roofing shingle engineered to deliver 130-MPH* wind warranty performance with only 4 nails. Fewer nails required can mean fewer deck penetrations.


Underlayment: Add an extra layer of protection between the shingles and the roof deck to help prevent damage from wind-driven rain.


Valleys: The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes to provide water runoff.

Vapor: Term used to describe moisture laden air.

Vent: Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.

Ventilation Products: Help protect a roof from premature failure of helping remove heat and mosture from the attic.


Warm Wall: The finished wall inside of a structure, used in roofing to determine how to install waterproof underlayments at eaves.

Warranty: The written promise to the owner of roofing materials for material related problems.

Waterproofing Underlayment’s: Modified bitumen based roofing underlayments. Designed to seal to wood decks and waterproof critical leak areas.

Woven Valleys: Method of valley construction in which shingles from both sides of the valley extend across the valley and are woven together by overlapping alternate courses as they are applied. The valley flashing is not exposed.